The year 2020 gave the world economy a true curveball. A dangerous infection that sprang out of nowhere swept throughout China and rapidly spread to the rest of the world.
People all across the world held their breath in anticipation of a vaccine being produced as a result of this event. Since then, governments have been given a restricted number of vaccinations, each with its own distinct signature.
Although AstraZeneca's vaccine, developed in collaboration with Oxford University, is successful, it raises concerns about potential blood clotting.
Experts believe the vaccination is being utilised as a "Trojan Horse". The vaccination attempts to stimulate the body to create crucial anti-bodies in response to a similar but new virus being injected into the body, which will defend against the SARS CoV-2 virus. Adenovirus-vectored technology is used in the AstraZeneca vaccine, and its derivation is a modified, innocuous common cold virus that spreads among chimps.
The significance of this is that the virus must be completely fresh to the body in order for antibodies to be produced.
Despite these qualities and popular belief, the vaccine will not make you sick, but it does include a gene that is identical to the spike protein of the new coronavirus, which is the component of the pathogen that stimulates an immune response.
Simply put, the vaccination induces the body to produce anti-coronavirus defence systems.
The Pfizer vaccination uses a very different strategy. Pfizer and Moderna use mRNA (DNA-like molecule) to trick cells into producing an immune response, but AstraZeneca uses a coronavirus that is safe and common in another species. The mRNA functions as a set of instructions, encouraging the cells to produce the same spike protein found on the surface of the SARS CoV-2 virus, triggering an immune response. Novavax gives a whole DNA strand, whilst the others provide a messenger RNA that binds to the cell and tells it to create the spike protein.
Lipids link themselves to cells and tell them to make a protein. When this protein binds to the cell's surface, the body believes the cells are contaminated. An immune response is triggered, resulting in the production of antibodies that defend against the original Coronavirus. Despite the fact that it is genetic material, it does not spread the virus. The chemical merely directs the muscle cells' protein synthesis.
This vaccine differs from others in that it does not employ dead or weakened viruses, instead, it instructs the body on how to fight the virus with an instruction set that is discarded after the cells are prepared.
Interestingly, while the Pfizer vaccination is more widely trusted and utilized, the Moderna vaccine (despite functioning in a similar fashion) is about 4.5 percent more successful - the Moderna has a 94.5 percent efficacy while the Pfizer has a 90 percent efficacy.